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Integrated Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

Adaptation Strategies

National Intervention

ICCAS has embarked on a simultaneous intervention approach to impact various stakeholders in society. While focusing on the overall climate change provisions at the level of senior government, via policy and sourcing funding for adaptation and mitigation initiatives, many necessary projects and awareness activities will be implemented at the community level as well. These activities are better depicted below.

 

Project output: Strengthened capacity of the Government of Grenada to mainstream adaptation considerations into national development planning (at various scales), supporting inter-sectoral mechanisms for climate change adaptation also including the private sector”

What is mainstreaming climate change adaptation?
What we do and the way in which we do it has to be put to the test. This does not necessarily mean that fundamental changes are needed, but we should aim for a culture that anticipates climate change risks and makes climate-smart decisions.
The idea of mainstreaming adaptation is to systematically include climate risk and adaptation considerations in regular decision-making and planning processes instead of only implementing stand-alone adaptation measures. This can take place at different levels (international, national, sub-national level; sectoral and project level). Irrespective of where mainstreaming adaptation is applied, it always comprises an institutional change process.

Why mainstreaming?
The main objective is to reduce climate risks or to check whether a decision needs to be modified due to a changing climate. This is necessary because by taking climate change into account in planning and decision-making regarding investments, we can prevent costs and destructive impacts of climate change.

What exactly is “climate proofing”?
It is an approach and has the following two objectives: 1) Systematic analysis of climate-related risks that could affect policies, projects or strategies; and 2) Identification and prioritisation of adaptation measures. It follows a four-step approach:
1) Identify current and future vulnerabilities related to a planning or decision context;
2) Evaluate need for modifying a plan or decision
3) Identify and select options how to modify a plan or decision/to integrate adaptation measures;
4) Evaluate success of adaptation.
Ideally, climate proofing will take place during the initial drafting and planning of measures or during the re-orientation and updating of the planning phase.

What has been achieved so far?
• The National Climate Change Committee – which has been dormant since 2011 – is active again under new Terms of Reference. Its main role is to function as a coordination and oversight body for climate change activities by the Government, the private sector, non-Government organizations and international agencies. There is now a dedicated sub-committee for climate change adaptation.
• Climate change adaptation issues have been integrated into Grenada’s National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy led by the Ministry of Finance.
• At the request of the Ministry of Finance, GIZ undertook a preliminary climate change public expenditure review – “How safe is Grenada’s budget 2015” which was developed in preparation for the budget discussion. The findings of the review are as follows 48% of the 2015 capital budget is at risk of being compromised by the negative impacts of climate change. Projects that reduce greenhouse gas emission (mitigation) or safeguard their impact from climate change (adaptation) represent 16% of the budget, while 36% of the budget may not be affected. In other words: Almost half of Grenada's budget for capital projects in 2015 is deemed at risk without any measures to mitigate. A more thorough analysis will be conducted in 2015 jointly by the Environment Division, Ministry of Finance and GIZ
• Staff from different ministries, the private sector and NGOs has a good knowledge of the structured climate risk assessment tool “Caribbean Climate Online Risk and Adaptation Tool ” (CCORAL), which was developed by the Caribbean Community Climate Change Center (5C) . As of March 2015:
• 25 technical officers underwent a complete CCORAL training. To allow a wider CCORAL capacity-building program in Grenada, 10 Grenadian technical officers are now trained to undertake CCORAL trainings.
• 13 Heads of Division from various Ministries (Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Works/Physical Planning Unit and Cabinet Office) as well as all 12 members of the National Climate Change Committee were sensitized.
• Several planning officers in the public service were sensitized and additional sessions for the construction sector as well as for technical officers from the sister islands Carriacou and Petite Martinique are planned for 2015.
• In parallel, discussions are being held at the highest administrative level on the mandatory use of CCORAL in planning and budgetary processes. Jointly with Jamaica, Grenada is leading the CCORAL process in the Caribbean. The 5C will soon publish an article as well as a podcast to promote Grenada as a front runner in introducing climate resilience into development planning through its introduction of CCORAL.
• The Environment Division initiated the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) process in February 2015. The final plan will be developed by the end of 2015. 
• With funding from a global GIZ project, a short Loss & Damage study for Grenada was conducted.

 

Project output: Improved planning, management and efficient use of the water and coastal zone resources through the establishment of integrated water resource management approaches and the formulation of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) policies and management plans.

Why does ICCAS focus on coastal and water resource management?
Although sectors like water and coastal zone management are highly vulnerable, climate change risks are not yet fully anticipated in water and coastal resource management, and adaptation measures are not yet sufficiently tested and promoted in these sectors. Therefore these two sectors are given specific attention under the ICCAS programme.
The majority of the Grenadian population lives in low-lying coastal areas susceptible to many of these issues. Most of the development and infrastructure in the tri-island state are also concentrated on the coast including roads, important towns, hotels, marinas and fishing villages and valuable agricultural lands. As such the coastal zone is an increasingly vulnerable area which needs proper management to properly adapt to these climatic changes.

In addition, Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique are highly dependent on sufficient and timely rainfall to ensure a safe water supply for the people. However, projected climate change impacts like increasing temperatures, shorter rainy seasons and heavy rainfall events along with less annual rainfall in total will seriously affect the water resources and water security in the tri-island state. During the 2009/2010 drought water production was reduced by up to 65%. In the last years, the Caribbean has been experiencing a significant increase in the number of consecutive dry days - and at the same time storm events with associated heavy rainfalls are becoming more frequent and intense. Due to run-off and erosion there is siltation of rivers and dams which can cause watershed degradation. In combination with water pollution and improper land use practices it further reduces the availability of safe water resources.

What has been achieved so far?
• The Government of Grenada, the private sector, non-governmental organizations, academia and ICCAS have jointly developed an Integrated Coastal Zone Policy for Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique. The development of the policy was coordinated by the ICCAS project and funded by ICCAS  and the regional programme Caribbean Aqua-Terrestrial Solutions (CATS), funded by the German Ministry of Economic Development and Cooperation (BMZ) and implemented by GIZ. The policy has been discussed in 8 meetings in various Grenadian parishes and input by more than 100 stakeholders has been provided. Cabinet approval is foreseen for the first half of 2015.
• In addition, 11 technical officers from agencies with fucntions relevant for Coastal Zone Management (Environment, Fisheries Division, Physical Planning Unit, National Disaster Management Authority, Land Use Division, Ministry fo Carriacou and Petite Management) were invited by the Coastal Zone Management Unit in Barbados for several different training sessions.
• 45 alternative water sources - outside of the National Water and Sewage Authority’s sources - have been located and mapped. They can be drawn on in an emergency, e.g. if after a hurricane the piped water supply fails or during dry spells.
• Three pilot projects (see links to briefs below) started in November 2014:
• Rain water harvesting project in Blaize
• Climate smart agriculture project in Mt. Moritz
• Restoration and Community Co-Management of Mangroves (RECCOMM) project in Northern Telescope
• A capacity building programme started targeting various levels within the Government of Grenada. For example, ICCAS supported trainings in the following areas: management and leadership skills training, coastal zone planning, international environmental laws and international negotiations, climate change diplomacy and lionfish management. A comprehensive training needs assessment and first trainings are currently being developed for Coastal Zone Management.
• On a quartery basis an “Agriculture and Climate Newsletter“ is published by the Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment which provides meteorological projections as well as climate-relevant agricultural advice to farmers. GIZ supported the initial phase.

 

For our brief “Protecting Our Coastline: Coastal Zone Management in Grenada”, click here
For our “How to Protect Our Water Resources from Climate Change” brief, click here
For our “How to Protect Our Nutmeg from Climate Change?” brief, click here
For all editions of the Agriculture and Climate Newsletter, click here:
For the pilot project briefs in Mt. Moritz, Blaize and Northern Telescope, click here:

 

Project Output: Design, establish and implement a “Community Climate Change Adaptation Fund” (CCCAF) that responds to the needs of vulnerable communities and that links climate risks and adaption measures with livelihoods.

Participation at the community level is key in the fight to increase the resilience against the numerous impacts of Climate Change. One major dilemma faced by communities across Grenada has been in the area of sourcing vital funding for those immediate community- based interventions. ICCAS has responded by creating the Community Climate Chance Adaptation Fund (CCCAF) which will realize more than 40 adaptation projects across Grenada by October 2016. The CCCAF was launched on November 14th 2014 and since then has attracted the interest of more than 150 individual projects across Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique. The fund offers Innovators, Non-governmental Organization and Community-based Organizations grant funding up to US $50,000 to conduct adaptation based projects at the community level.

What was the process like in developing the CCCAF?

Who can apply and what was the criteria?

GIZ outlines component 4.1 - Dropdown when click on each component

Output 4.1:   Enabled access to public (bilateral and multilateral) and private funding for climate change measures

Output: Strengthened understanding and awareness of climate change risks and adaptation measures (adaptation plan) and disseminate lessons learned and best practices at the local, national, regional and international levels.

Broadening your understanding, while triggering healthy and productive discussions around climate change and its implications are activities critical to fully appreciating the vulnerability of Grenada and the need to build resilience through adaptive measures. A number of initiatives have been undertaken, while some are in the pipeline, to ensure that the message reaches everyone in our society. This way, the shared national responsibility of climate change adaptation is well placed in the minds of all Grenadians. Here are a few of our outreach projects: